Strappado Torture Device

The Stock Punishment: A Humiliating Medieval Torture Device

Throughout the medieval period, the administration of justice was often accompanied by gruesome and degrading methods of punishment. Among the different torture devices employed, Stock Punishment was a particularly notable tool for public humiliation rather than causing death. In this article, we will explore the practical functioning, construction, objectives, and effects of the stock torture device, which was primarily intended for minor offenders during the Middle and high medieval ages.

The Stocks Torture Device: Mechanism and Construction

Stock Punishment
Stock Punishment by wellcomeimages is licensed by CC-BY-4.0

The stock torture device was ingeniously designed to immobilise the victim and expose them to the ridicule of the public. It consisted of two hinged wooden boards with an opening between them, where the victim’s hands, and sometimes feet, would be placed and chained. In some cases, there was also an additional hole for the head. This left the unfortunate victim bound in the stocks, vulnerable to the scorn of passers-by, and at the mercy of the elements.

The construction of the stocks was relatively simple compared to other medieval torture devices. It comprised two wooden planks with holes at their centre. Chains were sometimes added to the stocks further to restrain the hands and feet of the victim. Optionally, a wooden bench could be used for the victim to sit on, though they were often made to stand to increase their humiliation.

The Purpose and Impact of the Stocks Torture Device

Unlike other torture devices intended to inflict pain or death, the stock punishment was primarily aimed at public humiliation. Petty criminals were subjected to this punishment, enduring spitting, cursing, and having unsightly objects thrown at them by passers-by. The intentional humiliation inflicted psychological suffering, which could be severe even without physical pain.

In cases where the victim was left in the stocks for an extended period, exposure to harsh weather conditions could lead to accidental death from cold or heat. However, it’s essential to note that the primary goal was humiliation, and the stocks were not designed to inflict serious harm or death.

Notable Instances of Stocks Use

In historical records, stock punishment was recommended for unruly artists in the Second Statute of Labourers in 1350. These artists likely faced public disgrace for their actions, serving as a warning to others. While other torture devices involved active participation from executioners, the stocks only required binding the victim, leaving them for hours or even days without direct intervention from the executioner.

Another notable instance of stock punishment in medieval Europe occurred during the witch hunts and trials that took place between the 15th and 17th centuries. Accused witches, mostly women, were subjected to various forms of torture and punishment, and the stocks were sometimes employed as a means of public humiliation and punishment.

During the witch trials, individuals suspected of practising witchcraft were arrested, often based on flimsy or unfounded accusations. These accused witches were brought before the courts, where they faced harsh interrogation and torture to extract confessions. Once found guilty, they would be subjected to various punishments, including imprisonment, public shaming, and execution.

The Role of the Executioner

Stock Punishment
Stock Punishment by JIP is licensed by CC BY-SA 3.0

The executioner, commonly associated with other torture devices, played a minimal role in the stock punishment. Since the device aimed at public humiliation rather than causing physical harm, the executioner’s intervention was unnecessary. Once the victim was bound in the stocks, they were left in public view for hours or even days without active torture.

Stocks Fast Facts

  1. The stocks were intended for public humiliation rather than execution.
  2. Accidental deaths could occur due to prolonged exposure in the stocks.
  3. The device was simple, made of wood, and placed in various locations such as castles, towns, and villages.
  4. Minor offenders, such as unruly artists, were often subjected to the stocks, as the Statute of Labourers dictated in 1350.
  5. Today, similar devices are used at schools, festivals, and fairs for amusement and historical reenactments.


The stock punishment remains a haunting reminder of medieval justice and how societies once dealt with petty criminals. This simple yet effective device served its purpose by inflicting public humiliation upon wrongdoers, leaving them at the mercy of public scorn. While we have come a long way in developing fair and humane justice systems, the stocks serve as a cautionary tale about the importance of treating all individuals with dignity and respect, regardless of their actions. As we remember this dark chapter in history, let us strive for compassion, empathy, and a commitment to justice that upholds the rights and dignity of every individual.

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